When the 19th Amendment finally passed the Senate, Marie Stuart Edwards, Peru, IN said: "... we rejoice that this has come just now to the women of America at the dawn of this wonderful reconstruction period. Women are to “sit in” at the remaking of the world. I believe women will bring to our body politic an independence of action, a clarity of thought, unhampered by precedents, and an inspired desire to vote for the best interests of human society. We are calling on all women of the state to study, to carry through their plans for educational work along civic and citizenship lines. We are urging them to put loyalty to humanity, loyalty to country and to state above all ideas of party loyalty, since these new voters have yet to participate in party councils.
“I am glad to see this amendment pass. I am anxious to see it ratified. Most of all, am I anxious to see this great new force in action.
Marie Stuart Edwards, 4 Jun 1919

Monday, December 28, 2020

First to Register: Lorna Dresser

In February 1917, Indiana women received great news!

The Maston-McKinley Act[1] had just passed giving them partial suffrage.  It was not all they had worked so hard and hoped for but it seemed like a step in the right direction.  This bill gave them the right to vote in municipal, school and special elections.  And a special election was set for the upcoming Fall, a Constitutional Convention was calling for delegates and the women could vote for this.  The convention was to reconsider their right to full suffrage.

Registration opened on June 11 and was to continue until August 20, or 60 legal registration days, expiring 29 days before the election on September 18.

In Miami County, registration quarters were opened on the first floor of the courthouse, next to the rotunda in the north east corner.

Miss Ellen O’Brien and Miss Minnie Antrim are in charge and the place will be open every day except Sunday and on legal holidays

The first woman who registered in Miami County was Miss Lorna Dresser; the first man was County Clerk A S Berger.  More persons registered the first day than on any day since, about half of the whole number being women.  Four women came in from Macy on the first day.”

It is amazing that in spite of the fact that 3 copies were made of each registration, it appears not a single one survives.

The paper explains that: “Three copies have to be made of each registration paper, one for filing at the clerk’s office, and one for the chairman of each of the two larger political parties.  Two additional copies have to be made into books for poll-books, for the two parties.  It’s a fearful lot of work and much red tape is involved.”[2]

That week was a busy week for the suffragists as Mrs. Augusta C Hughston[3]
of New York, a national organizer of the American Woman Suffrage Association, in Indiana for 30 days, to help “where organization is needed.”[4]

How many women were able to register in Miami County in 1917, we do not know.  In fact Miami County would have an additional challenge.

The Maston-McKinley Act would be challenged and on June 25th, 1917, Judge Thornton, in Indianapolis ruled the new law legal except for the women’s vote, and he issued an injunction to prevent women from registering.

Marie Edwards, state president of the Indiana Woman’s Franchise League, immediately went to bat for the women of Indiana and on June 27, Attorney General Eli Stansbury issued a statement allowing the women’s registration to continue as Judge Thornton’s decision did not affect the registration law.

However, young overzealous clerk Aaron Berger had his own thoughts on the matter and he continued to bar women from registering and stated he would until the Indiana Supreme Court returned with a judgment on the case.

The Peru Journal of Jun 27, 1917 states that: “Women in Miami County who registered to vote for delegates to the state constitutional convention before five o’clock Tuesday evening are all who will register here for several days, at least.  County Clerk Aaron Berger did not permit any women to register Wednesday.”

In spite of the dispatches that women could register all day Wednesday Clerk Berger insured that no Miami County women register after Tuesday afternoon.  There is no registration record to give details and the paper only reports: “Women were registering fast in Miami County, according to reports. The local registration board refused to give out statistical information however, and said only that ‘women are registering much faster than the men’[5]

On the advice of Marie Edwards, Miami County suffragists began to secure notaries[6], who donated their time[7] and continued to register women at accessible locations, such as the Franchise League Headquarters located then at the Guild Hall of the Trinity Episcopal church. 

Registration papers were to be preserved and offered to the county clerks at once when a favorable decision would be secured from the Supreme Court.[8] 

Luckily Clerk Aaron Berger must have relented as the Peru Republican of July 6, 1917 mentions that: “Registration by women for voting for delegates to the constitutional convention has been going on at the county clerk’s office for the past few days and will continue until August 20, the time limit set by the law, unless ruled against by the supreme Court before that date.”

During Woman’s Patriotic Week, on July 2, 1917, four cars decorated in yellow suffrage colors toured the county, distributing suffrage literature, in rural homes and small towns.  A picture of the car was taken by Lentz Brothers[9], that day, just as they were leaving the Rosewood mansion where Helen Royse Shirk, Peru League president resided.


Interestingly, registration by affidavit also took place where women were employed.

at Moeck & Redmon basket factory,

The Peru Electric Works and

The Fox Brothers underwear factory, where some 40 women registered.  There, Mrs. Emma Barry[10] spoke on suffrage, with “the machinery being stopped and the girls being given an opportunity to register.  Every courtesy was extended to the ladies by the managers…”[11]

The Indiana Supreme Court returned a decision and decreed there would be no new constitution for Indiana in 1918, that the legislature had no right to call for a constitutional convention and so, no special election was held.[12]

In September the Maston-McKinley Act was reversed, though Marie Edwards still held hope[13] for a vote in the presidential elections until the State Supreme Court deemed the suffrage law unconstitutional and Indiana women lost their partial suffrage on October 26th, 1917[14].

Between its passage and the ruling by the Indiana Supreme Court, between 30,000 and 40,000 women registered to vote in Indianapolis alone.

Lines blur about this time as women were encouraged to donate their time to the Red Cross to knit socks for soldiers, sweaters, and sew surgical gowns and other supplies. 

The call soon became Patriotic service in exchange for Suffrage, just as had happened during the Civil War, with one big difference, women were better prepared and the movement would emerge from war years, stronger than ever. They were now serving with the Council of National Defense in a federally coordinated effort, supported by the National American Women Suffrage Association, led by Dr. Anna Howard Shaw.

Since we are lucky enough to know Lorna Dresser was the first to register in Miami County on June 11, 1917, let’s learn a bit more about who she was.


Lorna Dresser Unger[15]

On June 13, 1917, Lorna Dresser accompanied her future in-laws, Mr. and Mrs. John Unger to Lafayette to attend commencement exercises at Purdue University.  Her fiancĂ© Noel Unger had taken an engineer’s course before heading out to Fort Benjamin Harrison where he was enlisted in the Cadet Officers’ training camp.[16]

Noel and Lorna had been sweethearts since High School. 

There they had both worked together on the staff of the Narcissus. 

Lorna was the only daughter of Kenneth Lodewick Dresser and his wife Maude Julia Mills.  She was born on 23 February 1893, in Goodland, Kansas.  Her family moved to Peru from Muncie in 1902 when her father was transferred here for his railroad job.  She graduated from Peru High School in 1912 and was described as “one of the most charming girls who ever lived in Peru.”[17]

She took a job as a clerk in the office of County Recorder Frank Dunn, and was active in social circles.  The 1912 Narcissus describes her as “an energetic class worker”  

They married in Peru, on August 26, 1917, at the Trinity Episcopal church, mere days before Captain Noel Unger was to leave for Camp Taylor in Louisville, KY[18].  She joined him in October 1917 and took up residence on Zimlic Lane.  Noel Unger served as Captain of Company C, 334th Infantry.[19] 

Life was good for the couple in spite of the unavoidable anticipated departure for war at any time.  Lorna traveled back to Peru to visit her folks and that is during one of these extended visits that she became ill and tragically passed away on April 30, 1918.  The widowed captain would sail overseas less than 6 months later. He returned in April 1919 and remarried.  He eventually left Peru, IN.

Lorna Unger rests at Mount Hope Cemetery, Peru, IN.


Many thanks to Melissa Gentry for mentioning Lorna Dresser and sending me back to 1917 to find her!




[2] The Peru Republican 15 June 1917, Peru, IN

[4] The Peru Republican 15 Jun 1917, Peru, IN

[5] The Peru Journal 27 June 1917, Peru, IN

[6] The Peru Republican 29 Jun 1917, Peru, IN

[7] The Peru republican 6 July 1917, Peru, IN – Notaries donating their time were: Mrs. L O Arnold, Miss Blanche Jenkins

[8] The Peru Republican 29 Jun 1917, Peru, IN

[9] The Peru Republican 6 July 1917, Peru, IN - “The four cars used were loaned by Mrs. E M Bloomfield, Miss Amanda Smith, Mrs. H H Crites and Mrs. J H Shirk…  The ladies in the party making the trip included Mrs. Florence Gilbert, Mrs. Harry Crites, Mrs. Carl Crites and Mrs. John Crume, along with Misses Mary Stutesman, Mary Gallahan, esther Stauter, Ocal Fidler, Esther and Harriet Nyce, May and Florence Bloomfield, Amanda Smith, Lois Tillett, Mary McCaffrey, Madeline Ensel, Hazel Stutesman, Dorothy Long, Marguerite Petty and Esther Moon…”

[10] Emma Barry was the first woman Probate Officer and Deputy Sheriff in Miami County

[11] The Peru Republican 6 July 1917, Peru, IN

[12] The Peru Republican 20 July 1917, Peru, IN “Here There and Everywhere”, by Harriet Henton

[13] The Peru Republican 21 September 1917, Peru, IN

[14] The Daily Reporter, 27 Oct 1917, Greenfield, IN; The Indianapolis Star, 27 Oct 1917, Indianapolis, IN

[15] 1995.78.7 Miami County Museum, Peru, IN PHS 1912 – Lorna Dresser

[16] The Peru Republican 15 June 1917, Peru, IN

[17] The Peru Republican 3 May 1918, Peru, IN

[18] The Peru Republican 31 Aug 1917, Peru, IN

Friday, December 25, 2020

A Family Affair

 For 3 years now it has been my privilege to associate with Brenda WeaverIt feels as though we have known each other for much longer however, and it is an honor to call her friend.

Brenda had just “retired” from her job at the courthouse and was looking to do something to keep herself busy.  Her love for Miami County and for History brought her to one of the early meetings of Miami County Indiana Worth Remembering in the winter of 2017. 

I remember the first time I met her.  The name was, of course, familiar but I had not expected to meet a down to earth, approachable lady.

She had come to the Miami County Museum, dangling her purse, to join a discussion on how to fill the 100 years’ gap in the history of Miami County.

What also stood out was her unique way of saying things.  Brenda speaks in striking images.  She always has an old proverb or folksy wisdom at the tip of her tongue.  Of course I can’t think one right now but her quotes always resonate truth and common sense!

Brenda is the oldest of 3 children born to  

Donna Jeanette Richmond 








and Billy Carl Meadows.

The Meadows and their children: Brenda, Rhonda and Billy Carl II lived in Hinton, West Virginia until the railroads brought them to Indiana in the early 60s.

Brenda is married to Terry Weaver, with whom she has 4 children: Monica, Carla, Dean and Myles.

Terry surely knew, when Brenda retired, that she would not likely stay away from the courthouse very long.

Politics is in her DNA. 

When Brenda’s mother, Jeanette Meadows was named Miami County GOP chairwoman in 1998, she said in an interview for the Kokomo Tribune[1], that she had “been involved in politics since 1962”.  She must have meant in Indiana, because the Hinton, WV newspapers show her to have been involved earlier than 1962.

Indeed, Jeanette Meadows, blazed the political trail ahead of her daughters well before the family came to Indiana. 

 She served as Republican County Chair in Summers County, WV.   It may be during this time that she met JFK, who stopped by the Republican Headquarters while on the campaign trail in West Virginia in May 1960[2].  Rhonda Meadows Trexler, also Jeannette’s daughter, then 5y old, was sitting on the counter and she asked the future president if he was going to vote for her great-uncle Punchy Neely[3].


Jeanette's son, Billy C., II Meadows recalls seeing Eleanor Roosevelt in Hinton, WV while she was campaigning for JFK in 1960.  That is one of the things about having parents involved in politics: you get to see a lot of VIPs.  Jeanette also ran on the Republican District Ticket in the May 1960 Primaries.

I didn't find much of anything for the 62-68 period but this bit was interesting...

Co-chairing the Whitcomb-for-Governor committee in 1968, Jeanette Meadows and her husband Billy attended the Governor’s inauguration with the Miami County delegation.[4]

She also served as precinct committee person for 15 years.

In November 1975 Jeanette Meadows was appointed Recorder by County Commissioners to serve until the next general election.  She was elected on her own merits in November 1976 (7,678 votes)[5] against Jullianna Nye (5,998 votes).   

That, in fact, made her the first woman to hold an elected office in Miami County.  She was re-elected in November 1987 as recorder[6] with 9,142 votes.

Brenda followed in her mother’s footsteps when she was hired as Deputy Recorder, under Connie Hunt, in 1986.  She felt like she could make a difference on her own, so in 1992, she decided to run for office too.  She was elected Miami County Recorder on her own accord on November 3, 1992[7] and re-elected on Nov 5, 1996.[8]    

In 2000 she was elected Auditor, then again 4 years later.

In 2008, she sought and won election as recorder, once again.  She retained that position until the end of 2016.

It is as we began planning the centennial Poppy Field in 2018, that Brenda started attending the commissioners’ board meetings every other Monday.  It wasn’t long before the political ‘bug’ resurfaced.  Her past experience made her aware of what she could bring to the table to once again make a difference for Miami County. 

Marking 100 years of women’s right to vote in the United States, 2020 was the magic number for another ‘first woman’ in Miami County History and Brenda was up for the challenge.


On November 3, 2020, Brenda was elected Miami County Commissioner, the first woman to ever hold this office here.  Brenda is back in her element again! 

Her mother was surely proud of her career as a civil servant and likely smiled from above as she watched her granddaughter, Carla Weaver holding a familiar family Bible where Brenda’s hand rested as Judge Timothy Spahr administered the oath this Dec 23, 2020.  

During that same 1998 interview Jeanette Meadows said: “We’re the only two mother and daughter elected in the same office in the state.”

While Jeanette worked hard at promoting and electing other leaders in the state, Brenda felt she could tackle the role of County Commissioner.  Her woman’s touch and good old common sense, but also her keen awareness of laws, rules and regulations should come in very handy navigating thru the difficult times ahead.

We congratulate her and are happy for her.  We wish her the best as she joins the other county commissioners in her new duties.  Time to roll up the sleeves. There is lots of work ahead!

Brenda has also served in many other capacities including more recently as President of the Miami County Historical Society. She stepped down from this position to assume the responsibilities of county commissioner but we are lucky to be able to say she can continue with us at Miami County Indiana Worth remembering, since we do not receive county funding.


[1] Kokomo Tribune 15 Feb 1998, Kokomo, IN

[2] 4 May 1960

[3] Punch Neely – the Sunday Gazette-Mail, 27 Sep 1959, Charleston, WV

[4] Kokomo Tribune 12 Jan 1969, Kokomo, IN

[5] The Logansport Pharos-Tribune 3 Nov 1976, Logansport, IN

[6] Logansport Pharos Tribune 4 Nov 1987, Logansport, IN – “Nearly 15,000 of Miami County’s 18,000 eligible voters went to the polls Tuesday…”

[7] Kokomo Tribune 4 Nov 1992, Kokomo, IN

[8] Kokomo Tribune 5 Nov 1996, Kokomo, IN - 8,367 votes

Sunday, December 20, 2020

A Daughter of Indiana: Ellen Cole Fetter

Ellen Cole Fetter, by Kelly Meadows,

commissioned for the Peru Public Library 

by Miami County IN Worth remembering, 

in honor of this lady's continued generous legacy providing money to buy books for the library to this day. 

As part of the Humanities/OCRA's Preserving Women's Legacy Grant project

Monday, December 7, 2020

From Dublin to Peru

The Seneca Falls Convention[1] of 1849 was the first of its kind.  A woman’s rights convention where maybe for the first time the idea of woman’s suffrage was voiced out loud.

Even Elizabeth Cady Stanton[2]’s husband chose to stay away when she pressed on to present the idea as part of the Declaration of Sentiments[3].

Lucretia Mott[4] was also hesitant, though she let Elizabeth be bold with her idea.

The two women had met in London at the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840[5], to which they had been denied access because they were women.  Some men of the American delegation refused to be separated from them and joined the women in the spectator’s gallery.

This exclusion started a fire in Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and 8 years later they would organize the Seneca Falls Convention.

A month later another convention was held in Rochester, NY and the ball continued to roll thereafter.

You might be surprised to learn that the Midwest was not asleep either and Indiana was at the heart of the stirring.  In October 1851[6], in Dublin, Wayne County, women gathered asking for their rights. Referring to the state constitution of Indiana, they wanted to know if women were not citizens themselves.  Were women not people?

A year later, another convention was held in Indiana, in Richmond, a stone throw away from Dublin.

Lizzie Bunnell[7] and many others were in attendance and signed[8] the constitution of a new organization: The Indiana Woman’s Rights Association.  Lizzie Bunnell moved to Peru in 1856 and in 1861, started a woman’s rights newspaper, The Mayflower[9], in Peru, with the support of Dr. Mary Thomas, of Richmond, IN.  The paper managed to survive February 1864, when it died in Columbia City, IN where newlywed Lizzie had moved to earlier that year. The last Mayflower published in Peru is dated October 1, 1863.

The 1942 Palladium Item mentions a long list of people.  

I poured over the names and many jumped at me but ties to Miami County remain too hard to confirm.

We found an “E H Shirk” acknowledged as a Mayflower subscriber in 1864.  He is likely Elbert Hamilton Shirk of Peru, grandfather of Marie Stuart Edwards’ husband, Richard E Edwards.  Otherwise, none of the subscribers’ names stand out with absolute certainty as Miami county people.

The local newspapers turn up a blurb about 1882 Converse: “A Woman Suffrage meeting was held at the home of Mrs. M Edwards in Deer Creek township, Mrs. S R Haynes presiding.  Miss M A Clark was chosen secretary."[10]

Again, determining without a doubt who for sure these women are has proven to be very difficult.

A lot of commotion occurred on election day, November 6th, 1894[11] when Indiana women decided to go to the polls and attempt to vote as did  Helen Gougar and were refused a ballot on account of their sex:

-          In Anderson 250 members of the WCTU.

-          In Howard County too women turned up at the polls.

-          But no similar action is reported in Miami County.

So we pick up the story in Miami County on Oct 15, 1914, when the Peru Franchise League was created.

I may be grasping at straws at this point, looking at the records trying to connect the Miami County woman’s suffrage story to more of the early days.   

What did take place between 1864 and 1914?

Does the WCTU hold answers?

What role did it play in Miami County?

Who were the women involved?


The Miami County Museum kindly shared with me some more of its treasures in the form of a directory.   It meant very little when I first looked at it.   

A great article on the WCTU[12] explains much better than I can, its role in organizing the women so they could begin to exert influence on society, as a group.  Its main objective was to combat the ills of addiction, most to alcohol, which was perceived as one of the main causes of abuse in families. They believed that “one ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

Miami County’s WCTU had 5 Unions, organized at different times:

1.       The Amboy Union in 1888

2.       The Peru Union organized a Union in 1898

3.       The Converse Union in 1912

4.       The Macy Union in 1915

5.       The Kate Liebrick Union in South Peru in 1917

“Why would they use a woman’s name?”, was my question.  Who was Kate Liebrick?  

Kate LIEBRICK/LEEBRICK was born in Dublin, Indiana on May 1, 1842, to John Newman LEEBRICK and his wife Rosanna Matilda FRITCHEY.  She and her sister Emma came to Miami County to teach school.  The whole family ended up moving here and several are buried here.

Her sister Frances Ellen LIEBRICK, aka “Ella” came to Peru to visit her sisters and met George Curtis MILLER whom she married in 1869.  George Miller worked with Elbert Hamilton Shirk as business partners.  They lived at 82 West 6th, where the Miami Indian Tribal Headquarters are now.

Ella aka Mrs. G C MILLER is named in the article on the December 1914 meeting of the Peru Franchise League.  As they only named 5 of 16 founding members, it is not a big jump to believe she is one of them.

“Officers of the Peru League are:

-          President, Mrs. Harry Fetter

-          Vice-President, Mrs. R E Edwards

-          Second vice-president, Miss Harriet Henton

-          Treasurer: Mrs. A Wertheim

-          Secretary: Miss Grace Armitage


For the arrangement committee Thursday, Mrs. Joseph Shirk was appointed chairman, but was unable to serve, Mrs. Hector Loughran acting in her place.  The reception committee was composed of Mrs. Harry Fetter, Mrs. Frank Stutesman, Mrs. E W Shirk, Mrs. R E Edwards and Miss Harriet Henton.  Assistant hostesses were Mrs. G C Miller, Mrs. John Lawrence, Miss Ethel Blair, Grace Armitage, Mrs. Will Charters, Mrs. Charles Fultz, Mrs. S S Brewer, Mrs. A Wertheim and Mrs. John Hiner. 


The young ladies who assisted in serving were the Misses Alice Stutesman, Mildred Keyes, Helen Cole, Mary McClintic, Mabel Loughran, Kate Cox, Minnie Antrim, Addie Ream, Georgia Redmon, Grace Deniston, Jane Long and Hazel Arnold.”[13]

Ella was born 27 Sep 1848, so she would have only been 3 years old when the Dublin Convention took place.  Chances are slim she might have been there.  Her mother’s name does not appear on the newspaper list and neither does her grandmother’s.  Yet, it is hard to imagine the family was not influenced by the events taking place in the Richmond area at the time.

George C MILLER served as elected representative of the Howard and Miami district in the state senate.

Ella LIEBRICK MILLER died on 27 Nov 1920[14].  She is buried at Mount Hope with her husband and her parents.

Other names stand out, such as Mrs. E W Shirk, aka Mary Emma KIMBERLY, wife of Elbert Walker SHIRK.  Minnie ANTRIM who would, during the war, help bring the first biplane to Peru while doing war work in St Louis.  Harriet HENTON, the columnist for the Peru Republican; Kate COX who would be secretary of the Indiana Franchise League when Marie EDWARDS served as president.

[7] https://mciwr.blogspot.com/search/label/Lizzie%20Bunnell%20Read – The Palladium Item, 15 March 1942, Richmond, IN

[8] The Palladium Item, 15 March 1942, Richmond, IN

[10] published in the "Forty-One Years Ago Today" column of the Peru Republican 1 Jun 1923, from the earlier issue dated 8 June 1882.

[11] Chicago Tribune on Nov. 7, 1894; The Peru Republican 6 Nov 1894, Peru, IN

[12] The Temperance Movement In Indiana, Author(s): Charles E. Canup

Source: Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 16, No. 2 (JUNE, 1920), pp. 112-151; Published by: Indiana University Press

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/27785940 - Accessed: 23-02-2020 10:25 UTC

[13] The Peru Republican 18 Dec 1914, Peru, IN

[14] The Peru Republican 1 Dec 1922, Peru, IN

First to Register: Lorna Dresser

I n February 1917, Indiana women received great news! The Maston-McKinley Act [1] had just passed giving them partial suffrage.   It was ...